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        Adaptrum, Isizwe and Microsoft. Three   and demonstrate the TVWS technology. The results of the trial were sufficiently successful
        WAPA WISPS who supported the         and it was cited by the USA’s regulator, the FCC, as proof that adjacent-channel operations
        project are Airband (part of Herotel),   were feasible, contrary to what had previously been thought.
        Letaba and Mia Voice and Data.         In 2014, the Meraka Institute conducted another trial in cooperation with Microsoft,
                                             the Department of Science and Technology, the University of Limpopo and Multisource.
        Promoting entrepreneurships          Other African trials have since been run in Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia
        During the trial, many of the hotspots   and Tanzania.
        were installed in spaza shops creating   A CSIR Meraka Institute team developed a Geolocation Spectrum Database (GLSD)
        additional income by selling airtime.   based on the Protocol to Access Space. The GLSD will be managed by ICASA and
        “We see this as a great opportunity   is expected to be available from1 April 2021. The CISR has agreed to manage the
        to empower more people to become     secondary GLSD which is from where WSIPS that have the necessary licences will be
        hotspot hosts as another revenue     allocated their channels.
        stream.                                Using this open standard and a comprehensive database of existing licensed
                                             transmitters, the GLSD is able to accurately forecast the presence of commercial signals
        The story of TVWS in SA              at specific locations, thereby avoiding much of the potential for interference.    n
        South Africa has been a driving
        force in TVWS since its early stages
        and is the first country in Africa to
        have published a TVWS regulatory
        framework. Encompassing an
        unreached population of over 20
        million people in hard-to-reach terrain
        makes SA an ideal test location for a
        solution that scales affordably.
           The September 2016 issue of IEEE
        Spectrum carried an article entitled
        “Bridging Africa’s Broadband Divide”,
        in which authors David Johnson and
        Chomora Mikeka outlined trials in
        Cape Town and Malawi.
           The trial in Cape Town broke
        new ground by using channels
        adjacent to those being used
        for live broadcasts, something
        that ran contrary to practice in
        most countries. Nevertheless, no
        reported interference to existing
        services resulted. The trial was
        mostly conducted by the Council for   From left: Jacob Flewelling (USTDA), Hala Rharrit (US Durban Consulate), Paul Colmer
        Scientific and Industrial Research   (WAPA) and Timothy Driessel, (Mia Voice and Data).
        (CSIR), using manual analysis
        because the Geolocation Spectrum
        Database (GLSD) was not ready at      WAPA, established in 2006, is a non-profit trade association acting as a
        the time.
           Since about 2010, the CSIR         collective voice for the wireless industry. Its primary objective is to promote
                                              the growth of the wireless industry by facilitating self-regulation, promoting
        Meraka Institute had been working
        with ICASA, Sentech and others,       best practice and educating both members and the market about new wireless
        punting the merits of space systems.   technologies and business models. WAPA offers its members regulatory advice,
        The Meraka Institute developed a      technical training, a code of conduct, a forum for knowledge sharing and
        sensing technology demonstrator to    business enablement opportunities.
        show the feasibility of the approach.    WAPA is positioned to be an interface between the government regulator
        In 2011, Google approached ICASA      (ICASA), network operators, service providers, and consumers. It regularly makes
        about implementing space systems.     submissions and presentations to the government on regulations affecting the
        ICASA introduced them to the Meraka
        Institute, knowing that the required   wireless industry. WAPA is tirelessly lobbying for more progressive and efficient
        capability was available locally.     spectrum management in South Africa and is focusing on the possibilities of
           The Cape Town trial was the        TVWS spectrum for interference-free access.
        culmination of this process, in which
        the Meraka Institute cooperated with   For more information point your browser to
        Google and other partners to develop

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